Iran, formerly known as Persia, is the second-largest country in the Middle East, and the world’s 17th largest country, with a population of over 83 million people. Tehran is the country’s capital and largest city, as well as its economic and cultural hub. Home to one of the world’s oldest civilizations, the country’s rich legacy is reflected by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third largest number in Asia and 10th largest in the world. Persian culture is famous for beautiful poetry, luxurious rugs, and lush gardens, while the country is also popular as the world’s largest producer of caviar, pistachios, and saffron. Iran is the world’s fifth-biggest petroleum producer, 12th-biggest exporter, and has the world’s fourth-largest stock of proven crude oil reserves, which exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. Some of Iran’s most popular tourist destinations include Persepolis, Valley of the Stars, Nasir ol-Molk Mosque, Naqsh-e Jahan Square, Bridges of Esfahan, and Sheikh Safi al-din Khanegah and Shrine.